Increasing Prevalence of Myopia in Europe and the Impact of Education

Purpose To investigate whether myopia is becoming more common across Europe and explore whether increasing education levels, an important environmental risk factor for myopia, might explain any temporal trend. Design Meta-analysis of population-based, cross-sectional studies from the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium. Participants The E3 Consortium is a collaborative network of epidemiological studies of common…

The Economic Burden of Vision Loss and Eye Disorders in the United States

Overview The impact of chronic health problems is hard to put into words, so Prevent Blindness America put it into numbers by measuring the economic burden of vision loss and eye disorders. At a cost of $139 billion in 2013, eye disorders and vision loss are among the costliest health conditions currently facing the United…

The Emerging Epidemic of Diabetic Retinopathy in India

This report provides crucial guidance on how best to tackle what is fast becoming a leading cause of blindness in the Commonwealth and around the world. Diabetes, which has now reached epidemic levels, brings with it the devastating threat of vision loss and irreversible blindness. Of the estimated 385 million people diagnosed with diabetes globally, over 65…

Situational analysis and strategy for change in Myanmar

An evaluation of the current eye care status in Myanmar was carried out between 3rd June and 11th Jun 2013 to look at the existing situation pertaining to infrastructure, human resources, service delivery, training facilities and role of other service providers (including nongovernmental organizations) for eye care in Myanmar with the purpose of recommending future directions in Myanmar.  The…

Epidemiology of Blindness in Nepal

Nepal is one of the first countries where a nation-wide population-based survey on blindness and visual impairment was done in 1980-81. Results from this survey helped to mobilise support and to build an elaborate eye care infrastructure in the country.   To reassess the situation, between 2006 and 2010 surveys were repeated in all 14…

Retinopathy of prematurity: A global perspective of the epidemics, population of babies at risk and implications for control

Abstract: Globally at least 50,000 children are blind from retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) which is now a significant cause of blindness in many middle income countries in Latin American and Eastern Europe. Retinopathy of prematurity is also being reported from the emerging economies of India and China. The characteristics of babies developing severe disease varies,…

Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract: Numerous population-based studies of age-related macular degeneration have been reported around the world, with the results of some studies suggesting racial or ethnic differences in disease prevalence. Integrating these resources to provide summarised data to establish worldwide prevalence and to project the number of people with age-related macular degeneration from 2020 to 2040 would…

The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020

Aim: To estimate the number of people with open angle (OAG) and angle closure glaucoma (ACG) in 2010 and 2020. Methods: A review of published data with use of prevalence models. Data from population based studies of age specific prevalence of OAG and ACG that satisfied standard definitions were used to construct prevalence models for…

A Global Survey of Low Vision Service Provision

Purpose: To conduct a global survey of low vision services to describe the needs, priorities, and barriers in provision and coverage. Methods: Data were mainly derived from a survey and from some secondary sources. The survey was distributed to Vision 2020 contacts, government, and non-government organizations (NGOs) in 195 countries during 2006–2008. Themes in the…

Review of recent surveys on blindness and visual impairment in Latin America

Aims: To review recent data on prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Latin America. Method: Data from recent population-based prevalence surveys in nine countries in Latin America, covering 30 544 people aged 50 years and older, are presented. Results: The prevalence of bilateral blindness (VA <3/60 in the better eye with available correction)…

Progress report on elimination of Trachoma, 2013

2013 progress report on the elimination of Trachoma by the WHO Alliance for the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma by the year 2020 (GET2020). The number of people living in trachoma-endemic districts was estimated to have reduced from 314 million in 2011 to 229 million in 2013, according to the World Health Organization. The 2014…

Global vision impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia

Objectives: To evaluate the personal and community burdens of uncorrected presbyopia. Methods: We used multiple population-based surveys to estimate the global presbyopia prevalence, the spectacle coverage rate for presbyopia, and the community perception of vision impairment caused by uncorrected presbyopia. For planning purposes, the data were extrapolated for the future using population projections extracted from…

Global magnitude of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004

Estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment caused by uncorrected refractive errors in 2004 have been determined at regional and global levels for people aged 5 years and over from recent published and unpublished surveys. The estimates were based on the prevalence of visual acuity of less than 6/18 in the better eye with the currently available…

Situational analysis of eye health care in Zambia

As in almost all African countries, access to eye health care services for 13 million Zambians is inadequate. The VISION 2020 strategy set up a number of objectives that countries should achieve in order to improve access and increase quality of eye care services. These include specific targets for trained personnel, capacities of eye care facilities, cataract surgery…

Eye Health System Assessment in Ghana

Over the last few years, increasing efforts have been invested in exploring the relationship between the eye health system and the general health system. General consensus is emerging in the international eye care community that the effectiveness of eye care interventions can only be improved through a better understanding of how health systems function. A consortium of eye care…

Eye Health System Assessment in Sierra Leone

Over the last few years, increasing efforts have been invested in exploring the relationship between the eye health system and the general health system. General consensus is emerging in the international eye care community that the effectiveness of eye care interventions can only be improved through better understanding how health systems function. A consortium of eye care experts and…

Eye Health System Assessment in Cambodia

Over the last decade interest has increased in understanding the relationship between the eye health system and the general health system. In Cambodia, 90.2% of all bilateral blindness is avoidable with 79.1% curable and 11.1% preventable through the provision of effective eye care services. General consensus is also emerging in the international eye care community that the effectiveness of…

Mapping Human Resources for Eye Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: Progress towards VISION 2020

Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major focus of the global VISION 2020 strategy to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by 25% by the year 2020. The eye health workforce is thought to be much smaller in sub-Saharan Africa than other regions of the world but information on it…

Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis

Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking. This paper provides a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe…